Why in the discussion?
American Space Agency NASA scientists have given a new name to the set of 21 gamma beam beams. Their names have been kept on fictional films like Hulk and Godzilla. Scientists have named it on the occasion of completion of ten years of Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Mission.
- Gamma rays are emitted from the events occurring in space, such as the explosion of stars, black holes etc.
- By 2015, Fermi had detected about three thousand sources of gamma rays. The number of discovered sources is estimated to be equal to the number of bright stars in space. So scientists have prepared groups of these rays.
- They have been given names by scientists keeping in mind the size of the group of stars.
- On the same pattern, scientists also named the gamma ray beads. Their names are named after Little Prince, Hollywood movie “Doctor Who” named after ‘Tardis’, Godzilla, Hulk and Star Trek: The Original Series, named after USS Enterprise.
Fermi’s Telescope Help
- Fermi’s Large Area Telescope (Fermi’s Large Area Telescope-LAT) Since July, 2008, the most high-energy ray in space is exploring the sources of ‘gamma-ray’.
- Exposure Pulsar, Nova explosion, supernova explosions may be caused by the gamma-ray located in the galaxy and in our galaxy, or explosions can occur from the super-black black hole and gamma-ray bubble, which is the most powerful explosion in the universe.
- By 2015, the number of different sources mapped by Fermi’s LAT has increased by 3,000, that is, 10 times the number known before the mission.
- The number of known gamma-ray sources for the first time was equal to the number of bright stars, so this great method was used to understand a new set of ray beads.
- NASA chose the names of the gamma ray beads in the name of some characters and icons from modern myths, such as The Little Prince, The Time-Warping TARDIS, Godzilla and its hot rays from the ‘Doctor Who’, ‘Star Trek’ powered antimatter USS Enterprise: The Original Series and The Hulk, which are interestingly the products of gamma-ray experiment.
- Famous sites such as the 21 gamma ray beams – Sweden’s warship, Vasa, Washington monument and Mount Fuji in Japan
Key facts about Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope
- Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is NASA’s spacecraft to study the most powerful sources of radiation in the universe.
- The power of light visible in gamma rays is 1 billion times more and is so strong that if the Earth’s atmosphere does not protect it it can harm humans.
- Since gamma rays can not enter the atmosphere, so scientists study them using satellites in space.
- Gamma rays are important for scientific research because they can tell us about the high energy environment in the universe.
- More than half of known sources of known gamma rays are mysterious and scientists do not know why gamma rays come from those sources.
- Scientists have used the information sent to the Earth from the Fermi telescope to take pictures of those objects which can help in the discovery of sources of gamma rays.
- Initially Fermi’s name was GLAST-Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope but later it was named after the scientific Enrico Fermi.
- Enrico Fermi used gamma rays to study high energy physics and this telescope of their name is helping NASA better understand their theories.
- Fermi is searching for supermassive black holes and is also searching for new and highly denser pulsars.
Recently, the Science and Environment Center (CSE) analyzed the disposal of stool-urine from urban toilets in Uttar Pradesh. In this analysis, it has come to the forefront that if the tanks connected to the systematic sewer system are not used to deal with the situation then the whole state will be transformed into a swamp.
- It is worth mentioning that in this analysis conducted by the Science and Environment Center (CSE), a total of 30 cities of Uttar Pradesh were included.
- 80% of the urban areas of Uttar Pradesh have toilet facility. But 87% of the stool-urine is disposed in water bodies and agricultural land due to ineffective sanitation facilities.
- According to statistics, on average 28% of households in the cities involved in the analysis are able to join the sewer system. In such a way, the construction of toilets will cause huge damage to the environment without using scientific methods and foresight and promote handicap handling and hygiene diseases.
- According to this report, by 2019 the number of toilets in Uttar Pradesh will increase rapidly. If the use of scientific methods and foresight during the construction of these toilets is not used then the amount of wastewater coming from them will turn the whole state into a swamp.
- Due to the absence of systematic sewer system, waste washed from septic tanks, kitchens and bathrooms flows in open gutters. On the other hand, septic tanks have to be cleaned on fixed intervals. This cleaning can be done by hand or by machines.
- An analysis of the Science and Environment Center (CSE) shows that half of the cleaning work in these cities is done only by manual scavenger despite the legal restrictions on hand washing.
- Since no place has been set up for the disposal of waste, the excreted stool-urine is put into water bodies or agricultural land.
- During a period of 6 months, researchers painted a line-up of stool-urine flow for 30 cities, which is divided into four sections based on population.
- In cities with more than one million people, such as Lucknow, Agra and Kanpur, the sewer system is connected to 44% houses.
- Things are worse in smaller cities. In cities with population of five to ten million, more than 70% of the population depend on the tanks associated with open drains and only half of those tanks come to the standards of septic tank.