Why in the discussion?
- Keeping in view the importance of the festival of lights along with the adverse effects of fireworks lit on Diwali, the Environment Ministry has started the Green Diwali campaign.
- This year this campaign will be run throughout the country. The merger of ‘Green Diwali-Healthy Diwali’ campaign has now been done in the ‘Green Good Deed’ campaign, which has been started as a social solidarity for environmental protection.
- Green Diwali-Healthy Diwali Program was started in the year 2017-18.
- During that time, a large number of schoolchildren, especially those related to the eco-club, had participated in this campaign and took oath to at least crack the crackers.
- Under this, the children were advised to give gifts to their relatives and friends with sweets and to clean their homes and surrounding areas. This campaign was very successful and compared to the year 2016, after air pollution did not take a vitiated look after Deepawali in 2017.
- Considering the above facts, the Ministry of Environment has once again started this campaign.
Side effects of firecrackers
- Fireworks contain many flammable chemicals, including potassium chlorate powder, aluminum, magnesium, barium, copper, sodium, lithium, strontium etc.
- With the noise of these chemicals, too much smoke also emerges. This smoke and noise creates serious health problems in children and the elderly. Not only this, this smoke is also harmful to animals and birds.
Air pollution rises in winter
- Air pollution takes the form of a serious health problem especially during the winter in the northern parts of the country.
- Air pollution in the northern region of the country is greatly increased due to burning of garland in some states, burning of garbage material and weather related conditions and dust particles.
- This air pollution leads to more serious health problems of people suffering from diseases of children, elderly and inhaled.
- During this period people celebrate Prakash Utsav ‘Deepawali’ with great fanfare. Most people like to celebrate Diwali after burning crackers. By burning firecrackers, the problem of air pollution takes on a more vivid form.
Why in the discussion?
US President Donald Trump has announced that his country will be separated from the Cold War-era Nuclear Weapons Treaty, i.e. Medium-Term Atomic Power Pact (INF) with Russia during the Cold War. At the same time, he alleged that Russia has been violating this agreement for many years.
- The intermediate-range Nucleare Forces Treaty-INF period is to end in the next two years. This treaty in 1987 helped protect America and Europe and its allies in the Far East.
- This treaty prohibits the creation of a cruise missile that leaves America and Russia killing 300 to 3,400 miles of land. It includes all land based missiles.
- In 1987, US President Ronald Reagan and his then USSR counterpart Mikhail Gorbachev signed the INF treaty to not build medium-range and short-range firepower missiles.
- The US President has said that until the Russian and China agree on a new agreement, this agreement will be considered to be over and then America will be able to develop weapons.
- Trump alleges that Russia has violated the agreement. Russia has been violating it for many years. The US says that unless Russia and China come to us and do not say that none of us will build those weapons, then America will continue to build those weapons.
Did Russia violate this treaty?
- The US says Russia has violated this treaty by creating a new medium-range missile. The Russian missile name is Novator 9M729. NATO countries know it as MSC-8
- Russia can launch an immediate nuclear attack on NATO countries through this missile. Russia has given very little information about the missile and is rejecting the allegations of infringement of the INF treaty.
- Analysts believe that this weapon for Russia is a cheaper alternative than conventional weapons.
- Some analysts believe that the US wants to get out of this treaty in view of the growing presence of China in the Western Pacific.
- It is obvious that China is not involved in this treaty, so there is no restriction on the deployment and testing of missiles.
- Earlier in 2002, US President George W. Bush had taken America out of the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.
- China is independent of the intermediate range of nuclear missiles and its deployment.
- The Trump Administration feels that it is being harmed because of the INF treaty because China is doing all that work America is unable to do due to this treaty.
What is the INF treaty?
- This treaty stops the launch of restricted nuclear weapons and non-nuclear missiles. America is angry with Russia’s SS-20’s deployment in Europe. Its range is 500 to 5,500 kilometers.
- On this, the two countries signed the end of the Cold War. After the end of World War II, due to hostile relations between the US and the Soviet Union between 1945 and 1989, the fear of war in the whole world was deepened.
- Under this treaty, nearly 2,700 missiles have been destroyed till 1991. Both countries allow each other to monitor the testing and deployment of missiles.
- In 2007, Russian President Putin had said that this treaty is not benefiting from his interests. This commentary from Russia came in 2002 after being out of the US anti-ballistic missile treaty.
What did the treaty get?
- The historical result of the INF Treaty during the Cold War was revealed.
- Under this, with 2,700 missiles, their launchers were destroyed.
- This encouraged America-Soviet Union’s relations.
- The Trump administration feels that the work and deployment of missile systems in Russia is a matter of concern. But Trump will have a great effect on the control of arms to get out of this agreement.
- Many analysts believe that negotiations will continue and hopefully Russia will understand this.
- It is feared that the hinges that took place after the Cold War on the arms race did not start again.